Assessment of Surface Water Quality Using the Water Quality Index and Multivariate Statistical Techniques – A Case Study: The Upper Part of Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam

Hung Pham, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Nguyen Cong Nguyen, Phu Le Vo, Trung Le Van, Huu Hao Ngo



Surface water resource in the Upper Part of Dong Nai (UPDN) River Basin has an important role for socio-economic development of provinces in the Southeast region of Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of anthropogenic sources of pollutants on water quality parameters by using the integration solution between the Water Quality Index (WQI) and multivariate statistical techniques. In this study, eight physico-chemical parameters of surface water samples were collected from 42 monitoring sites in the UPDN for assessing spatial and temporal water quality variations during the period of 2012-2016. WQI and the multivariate statistical techniques comprising hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Spearman correlation analysis (SCA) were used to evaluate characteristics of surface water quality. The results revealed that surface water of the river was moderately polluted and the water quality highly varied between monitoring sites and seasons. The study also found that the concentrations of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were the most prominent parameter affecting water quality in the rainy season (r = -0.85). The proposed solution demonstrated integrated tools rather than the conventional techniques in assessing the river water quality. This integration technique could be an efficient approach to communicate information on water quality for the sustainable practices of watershed management in the Upper Part of Dong Nai River Basin.


Keywords: The Upper Part of Dong Nai river; water quality index (WQI); multivariate statistical techniques